The Cause of Global Warming : テキストデータ

What causes global warming? You do,silly!
Kevin Cummins
Sierra Club Volunteer
Increases in carbon dioxide cause the earth to get warmer
Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) (plus other gases like methane) in the atmosphere absorb heat radiating from the earth.
This trapped heat increases the evaporation of water from the oceans into the air to cause a greater increase in warming of the atmosphere. CO2 has a forcing effect on climate.
The combined effect of water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane controls the temperature of the earth.
Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere plays a key role in making our planet liveable.
It allows sun light to pass through the atmosphere and warm the earth.
It also traps or absorbs some of the heat which radiates from the earth back into space.
The warming effect caused by carbon dioxide absorbing the radiant heat from the earth causes water vapor to evaporate from the earth. The water vapor in the atmosphere absorbs even more radiant heat than the carbon dioxide which he lps make our planet liveable.
This thin layer of atmosphere thus acts as a “blanket” to make the planet earth liveable
Source: OSTP
The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
Greenhouse Analogy: Anyone who has visited a greenhouse for growing plants or sat in a parked car with the windows closed on a warm summer day has experienced the principle behind global warming. The sunlight goes through the glass and the heat is trapped inside.
The gases in the atmosphere surrounding the earth act much the same way. Incoming solar radiation passes through the atmosphere to the earth’s surface, but most of the outgoing radiation emitted from the surface of the Earth is absorbed by the greenhouse gas molecules in the atmosphere and reradiated back towards the earth. In other words, the greenhouse gases trap heat as it is reradiated from the earth back to space. The effect of this is to warm the earth's surface.
Water vapor and carbon dioxide are the 2 most abundant natural greenhouse gases.
This natural greenhouse effect keeps the earth about 60°F warmer than it otherwise would be. Without the greenhouse effect, life as we know it would not be possible.
Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are increasing
Carbon dioxide is produced from burning wood, coal, gas, etc.
The amount in the atmosphere has risen from 280 ppm (100+ years ago) to 370 ppm today.
This increase in carbon dioxide is the atmosphere is increasing the heat being absorbed from the earth.
CO2,CH4 and estimated global temperature (Antarctic ΔT/2
in ice core era)
0 = 1880-1899 mean.
Source: Hansen, Clim. Change, 68, 269, 2005.
Today’s atmosphere blanket is too thick!
The increase in CO2 in the atmosphere traps more heat and causes more water vapor to evaporate into the atmosphere.
Our new blanket around the world is simply making the earth too warm!
We need a thinner blanket for our earth!
What can happen if we don’t produce less CO2 ?
Temperatures will get warmer.
Glaciers will melt, ice sheets in Artic will melt (Polar Bears hunt on ice shee ts)
Sea levels will rise. Utah will be on Pacific Coast…. NOT!
More droughts in dry areas and more rain and snow in wet areas.
More violent weather around the world.
If nothing is done to slow greenhouse gas emissions. . .
CO2 concentrations will likely be more than 700 ppm by 2100
Global average temperatures projected to increase between 2.5 - 10.4°F
2100
Source: OSTP
CO2 Concentration and Temperature Change - Next 100 Years
Second, if the world proceeds on what's called a "business-as-usual" path; in other words, nothing is done to slow greenhouse gas emissions and they continue to grow at their present rate of about 1% per year, atmospheric CO2 concentrations will likely be more than 700 ppm by the year 2100, and they will still be rising.
This is nearly double the current level and much more than double the pre-industrial level of 280 ppm.
State-of-the-art global climate models, computer models used by scientists to study the effects of global warming, project that anthropogenic emissions driving thi s CO2 rise will result in a significant increase in global average temperatures over the next 100 years, an increase ranging from 2.5 °and 10.4°F (1.4 - 5.8°C).
Melt descending
into a moulin,
a vertical shaft
carrying water
to ice sheet base.
Source: Roger Braithwaite, University of Manchester (UK)
Surface Melt on Greenland
How can we stop the earth’s “blanket” from getting us to warm?
We must start putting less carbon dioxide into the air.
Most the CO2 in the air will be around for 100 years.
We need to burn less gasoline in our cars.
Burn less coal (or burn it cleaner) for our electricity.
Use less gas to heat our homes.
Use less gas and electricity in our factories and on our farms.
What can we use for energy to replace carbon based fuels?
Solar
Biofuels
Wind
Nuclear Power (may be necessary whether we like it or not!)
Geothermal
We can also use less fuel
Higher mileage cars
Live and work closer to home
Walk, ride bikes
Better insulated homes
Use more efficient lights (fluorescent/LED)
More efficient factories
What can you do about?
Discuss it with your parents, friends and relatives
Conserve more yourself.
Write your elected officials
Go to college and find new and better solutions for the future.
So what’s the bad news/good news if we don’t act soon?
Bad news: We could lose control of the temperature rise of the earth. CO2 and methane from warm tundra and oceans could be released to atmosphere. This could be beyond our control. A “run away condition”
Good news: Schools would close. NOT!
Good news: Maybe global engineering could save us! (reflectors in space, dust in space)
What can the future hold for you children?
More community spirit- we all must work together to solve the global warming problem
A safer world with fewer enemies. GW can only be solved with world cooperation.
Less proverty in the world. Solving the world’s GW problem cooperatively will require that proverty be reduced.
As my high school teacher used to say:
“Don’t be a carbuncle on the butt of society!”
Get out there and make the world a better place to live!
And also don’t forget to take care of the elderly along the way (Myself included)
References
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, www.ipcc.ch/
“The New Scientist.com”, A Special Report on Climate Change, http://www.newscientist.com/channel/earth/climate-change.
“Defusing the Global Warming Time Bomb” by James Hansen, Scientific American, 290, no. 3, March 2004, pp. 68-77. (available for download at http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/)
EPA global warming Website: http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/index.html
“Climate Change and Utah”, USEPA, EPA 236-F-98-007z. Sept. 1998, available at : http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/us-utah.html
For young children (story book style):
http://www.unep.org/PDF/TORE.pdf
Disclaimer
The preceding is my opinion and does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Sierra Club.