Mead and Freeman- Which Is Right?

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    Margaret Mead is said to be one of the pioneers of the field of psychological anthropology. She concluded what determines conflicts during the adolescent period are created by the surrounding culture; moreover, one’s personality is determined by only culture, not by biological factors. Mead went to the eastern islands in the Samoa when she was 23. She introduced a very different view of anthropology, but if only the way she researched were carefully discussed and learned before she conducted participant observations. An anthropologist, Derek Freeman, disagreed with Mead, criticizing her research had many errors after he visited Samoa. I have read two books, “Coming of Age in Samoa,” written by Mead and “Margaret Mead and Samoa: The Making and Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth,” written by Freeman (both were Japanese translated version). I support Freeman’s idea that both biological and cultural influences would bring conflicts during adolescent and characterize one’s personality. To support this idea, I am going to indicate why the research Mead had done does not support the idea that culture is the only thing which determines one’s personality from many reasons.
    The first problem in Mead’s research was she was not well prepared to start her research in the Samoa islands. She was told to do an adolescent research by her professor, Franz Bois in graduate school. She arrived in the Samoa with little knowledge of history, lifestyle, custom, and/or culture.

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    Margaret Mead is said to be one of the pioneers of the field of psychological anthropology. She concluded what determines conflicts during the adolescent period are created by the surrounding culture; moreover, one's personality is determined by only culture, not by biological factors. Mead went to the eastern islands in the Samoa when she was 23. She introduced a very different view of anthropology, but if only the way she researched were carefully discussed and learned before she conducted par..

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