In T. Dalgleish and M. Power (Eds.). Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Sussex, U.K.: John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 1999.
University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
In this chapter I consolidate my previous writings about basic emotions (Ekman, 1984, 1992a,
1992b) and introduce a few changes in my thinking. My views over the past 40 years have
changed radically from my initial view (Ekman, 1957) that: (a) a pleasant—unpleasant and